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Orange: The uniquely warm color
Orange alone out of all the colors on the palette is always warm. There are cool reds and cool yellows, but never a cool orange. Burnt Sienna is just a darkened orange, and in this form it is most useful to the artist. This list is organized with a separate page for browns for convenience but it should be understood that many browns are just the dark form of orange. Orange can be useful in small amounts when mixing salmony flesh tones. In landscape it is unavoidable for finding the subtle colors in evening skies, or desert rocks and the trunks of certain Australian trees. Understated and always full of warmth this is a friendly color.


Cadmium Orange PO 20   ASTM  l
Chemical type and description
Inorganic synthetic Cadmium. Co-precipitated Cadmium Sulfide with Cadmium Selenide. Redder shades have a higher portion of Selenium. Slow drying. Makes a hard but fairly flexible oil paint. Introduced in 1846 but was rare for many tears due to the scarcity of the metal. Fades in the presence of moisture. Discolored by lead pigments unless well protected in oil. Chemically Pure grades are available, but it is common to find up to 15% Barium Sulfate. CP. costs more but has a stronger color and is recommended. Also comes in lithopone and vermilion forms although rarely and these should be avoided. Do not use for any drawing media under any circumstances.
Toxicity
Cadmium considered toxic. Do not ingest or breath dust.
Media suitability
Linseed oil,  Alkyd, Acrylic, Watercolor, Gouache, Tempera, Encaustic, Fresco


Perinone Orange PO 43   ASTM  l
Chemical type and description
Organic synthetic Anthraquinone. Average drying. Makes a hard but fairly flexible oil paint. A strong clean reddish orange vat pigment with excellent light fastness. The perfect alternative to Cadmium Orange when more transparency is required or to use in dry media such as pastels.
Toxicity
Not considered toxic. Do not breath dust.
Media suitability
Linseed oil,  Alkyd, Acrylic, Watercolor, Gouache, Tempera, Encaustic, Fresco, Pastel, Chalks.


Other oranges Interesting alternatives
Quinacridone Gold (PO 48) suitable for all media and considered non-toxic. Can exhibit problems during dispersion. Lacks brightness in tints but excellent light fastness.

Quinacridone Burnt Orange (PO 206) Suitable for all media and considered non-toxic. A very beautiful dark reddish orange not dissimilar to Burnt Sienna. Excellent light fastness. Can exhibit problems during dispersion.


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References
Alberti, L B,    On Painting    1435 (Penguin Classics)
Cellini, B,    The Life Of Benvenuto Cellini,    finished 1562 but not published until 1730 (Heron)
Cennini, C d'A,    The Craftsman's Handbook.    1437 (Dover)
Doerner, M,    The Materials Of The Artist And Their Use In Painting,    1921 (Harcourt Brace)
Eastlake, Sir C L,    Materials For A History Of Oil Painting,    1847 (Dover)
Feller, R L,    Artists Pigments    1986 (National Gallery Of Art / Cambridge University)
Gettens, R J, and Stout, G L,      Painting Materials: A Short Encyclopedia,      1942 (Dover)
Gottsegen, M D,    A Manual Of Painting Materials And Techniques,    1987 (Harper & Row)
Maire, F,    Colors: What They Are And What To Expect Of Them,    1910 (Drake)
Mayer, R,   The Artists Handbook Of Materials And Techniques,    fifth edition 1991  (Faber & Faber)
Merrifield, Mrs. M P,    Medieval And Renaissance Treatises On The Arts Of Painting    1849 (Dover)
Muther, R,    The History Of Painting From The Fourth Century To The Early Nineteenth Century,    1907 (Putnam)
Parkhurst, D B,    The Painter In Oil   1898 (Lothrop, Lee & Shepard)
Patton, T C,    Pigment Handbook,    1973 (Wiley)
Porter, N      Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary,      1913 (Merriam)
Pliny, The Elder (Gaius Plinius),    Natural History,    77 AD (Penguin Classics)
Roy, A      Artist's Pigments: A Handbook Of Their History And Characteristics,      1994 (Oxford University Press)
Taubs, F,    A Guide To Traditional And Modern Painting Methods,    1963 (Thames & Hudson)
Theophilus,   On Divers Arts,    1125 (Dover)
Various,    Encyclopedia Britannica,    fifteenth edition 1981  (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc)
Various,    Paint And Painting,   1982,  (Winsor & Newton / The Tate Gallery)
Various,    The Artist's Colormen's Story,    1984 (Winsor & Newton)
Vasari, G,   The Lives Of The Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors And Architects,    1568 (Penguin Classics)


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